The earliest types of gladiator were named after Rome's enemies of that time: the Samnite , Thracian and Gaul . The Samnite, heavily armed, elegantly helmed and probably the most popular type, was renamed Secutor and the Gaul renamed Murmillo , once these former enemies had been conquered then absorbed into Rome's Empire. In the mid-republican munus , each type seems to have fought against a similar or identical type. In the later Republic and early Empire, various "fantasy" types were introduced, and were set against dissimilar but complementary types. For example, the bareheaded, nimble Retiarius ("net-man"), armoured only at the left arm and shoulder, pitted his net, trident and dagger against the more heavily armoured, helmeted Secutor.  Most depictions of gladiators show the most common and popular types. Passing literary references to others has allowed their tentative reconstruction. Other novelties introduced around this time included gladiators who fought from chariots or carts , or from horseback .
It is uncertain when the last actual trial by battle in Britain took place. While some references speak of such a trial being held in 1631, records indicate that King Charles I intervened to prevent the battle.  A 1638 case is less clear: it involved a legal dispute between Ralf Claxton and Richard Lilburne (the latter the father of the pugnacious John Lilburne ). The king again stepped in, and judges acted to delay proceedings.   No record survives of the outcome of the case, but no contemporary account speaks of the trial by battle actually taking place.   The last certain judicial battle in Britain was in Scotland in 1597, when Adam Bruntfield accused James Carmichael of murder and killed him in battle. 
"Why don't you write a song for the luncheon?" she asked. "Why don't you write a rap?" Pause. I was processing where in the heck she had even heard the term "rap," when she continued, "a WASP rap! You're the songwriter!" (To be fair, I am a songwriter and was a member of the musicians union back in the days of harmony and music that didn't sound so angry. But not rap!) So, I made a small mistake. I spoke before thinking: "Mom, rap is not music." I instantly sensed I was about to disappoint her — so I quickly added, "but, if you want a rap song, why don't you write it yourself?" Pause. "I'll give you the background beat and you can put words to it."