Hypothesis identification article analysis essay

HIV/AIDS is relatively high and rapidly increasing among non-injecting, substance abusing, heterosexual men (NI-SA-HM; Malow & Ireland, 1996). Prior studies have focused predominantly on men who share drug-injecting equipment or who engage in sex with other men because these behaviors confer a high level of HIV risk. Beyond the risk of these behaviors, the possibility of HIV transmission is significantly enhanced by various behaviors that have been associated with non-injection drug use such as unprotected sex with multiple partners, exchanging sex for drugs or alcohol, and substance use/abuse proximal to sex.

Disagreements over one-tailed tests flow from the philosophy of science. While Fisher was willing to ignore the unlikely case of the Lady guessing all cups of tea incorrectly (which may have been appropriate for the circumstances), medicine believes that a proposed treatment that kills patients is significant in every sense and should be reported and perhaps explained. Poor statistical reporting practices have contributed to disagreements over one-tailed tests. Statistical significance resulting from two-tailed tests is insensitive to the sign of the relationship; Reporting significance alone is inadequate. "The treatment has an effect" is the uninformative result of a two-tailed test. "The treatment has a beneficial effect" is the more informative result of a one-tailed test. "The treatment has an effect, reducing the average length of hospitalization by days" is the most informative report, combining a two-tailed significance test result with a numeric estimate of the relationship between treatment and effect. Explicitly reporting a numeric result eliminates a philosophical advantage of a one-tailed test. An underlying issue is the appropriate form of an experimental science without numeric predictive theories: A model of numeric results is more informative than a model of effect signs (positive, negative or unknown) which is more informative than a model of simple significance (non-zero or unknown); in the absence of numeric theory signs may suffice.

Synthesis of a virus from chemicals . Viruses are widely viewed as biological entities that are not quite alive. 11 They contain genetic material (RNA or DNA) and some structure (a protective protein coat) but when they are outside of a living cell viruses are inert (they are unresponsive to stimuli and lack any metabolic activity) and they cannot reproduce. It has been shown that viruses can be synthesized directly from chemicals without mediation by living cells. In 2002, a research team led by Eckard Wimmer at SUNY Stony Brook synthesized the relatively simply poliovirus by artificially stringing together all 7,500 bases of its RNA code. The technology for synthesizing viruses has since then steadily advanced, with potential applications to vaccine production and new forms of medical treatment involving the insertion of the engineered virus’s genetic material into diseased cells.

Exploration of the effectiveness of communication between health care professionals themselves (interprofessional communication) offers additional insights into communication challenges and opportunities. Interprofessional communication is critical to enabling the effectiveness of the health care system as the costs associated with ineffective communication between heath care professionals are very high. For example, ineffective communication between providers has been linked to issues of patient safety, medical error (18), low patient satisfaction and complaints by patients and caregivers (5).

Hypothesis identification article analysis essay

hypothesis identification article analysis essay

Exploration of the effectiveness of communication between health care professionals themselves (interprofessional communication) offers additional insights into communication challenges and opportunities. Interprofessional communication is critical to enabling the effectiveness of the health care system as the costs associated with ineffective communication between heath care professionals are very high. For example, ineffective communication between providers has been linked to issues of patient safety, medical error (18), low patient satisfaction and complaints by patients and caregivers (5).

Media:

hypothesis identification article analysis essayhypothesis identification article analysis essayhypothesis identification article analysis essayhypothesis identification article analysis essay