Hegel's end of history thesis

For as soon as the distribution of labour comes into being, each man has a particular exclusive sphere of activity, which is forced upon him and from which he cannot escape. He is a hunter, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a critical critic and must remain so if he does not wish to lose his means of livelihood; while in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, to fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening,criticize after dinner, just as I have in mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, shepherd or critic.

Plato was Socrates' foremost pupil and recorder of many of his conversations. His 'Dialogues', even in translation, are some of the most interesting reading in Western literature. He developed a many-sided philosophy that includes a theory of knowledge, a theory of human conduct, a theory of the state, and a theory of the universe. He said there is a world of sense experience that is always changing. There is also a world of unchanging ideas, which is the only true reality. His world of ideas resembles a blueprint after which the objects of the physical world are fashioned. So profound has the influence of Plato been on human thought that the 20th-century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead said that all philosophy is "but a footnote to Plato."

Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet (1743-1794) openly embraced Enlightenment progressivism. Like Voltaire, his Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (published posthumously in 1795) viewed the past as a progress of reason, but was more optimistic about the inevitable progress of liberal ideals such as free speech, democratic government, and the equity of suffrage, education, and wealth. The point of history was not only a description of this progress. Because the progress is lawful and universal, history is also predictive and, what is more, articulates a duty for political institutions to work toward the sort of equalities that the march of history would bring about anyway. The historian is no mere critic of his time, but also a herald of what is to come. Widely influential on the French Revolution, Condorcet also made a significant impression on the systematizing philosophies of history of Saint-Simon, Hegel, and Marx, as well as laid the first blueprints for systematic study of social history made popular by Comte, Weber, and Durkheim.

This presumes that there will be a triumph of a government system for regulating society. Yuval Noah Harari, in his 2011 book Sapiens, A Brief History of Humankind , shows that our behaviors are controlled by self-replicating cultural biases that may very well lead to the permanent destruction of humanity and, that industrialization is both one product of that bias and a clear indicator of its influence. The exceptions, explanations and incalculable time frame Fukuyama lays out to validate his theory ignore the reality of human motivational behavior as explained by Kahneman and Tversky in their 1981 essay "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice." Kahneman and Tversky provide evidence and data that prove we do not behave in ways that the majority of academics define as "rational" and, therefore, predictable. That lack of rational predictability is even truer in any political undertaking. To say that democracy may expire, perhaps for centuries, but will rise again and become the universal norm provides a reason to look elsewhere for useful exploration of humankind's future.

Hegel's end of history thesis

hegel's end of history thesis

This presumes that there will be a triumph of a government system for regulating society. Yuval Noah Harari, in his 2011 book Sapiens, A Brief History of Humankind , shows that our behaviors are controlled by self-replicating cultural biases that may very well lead to the permanent destruction of humanity and, that industrialization is both one product of that bias and a clear indicator of its influence. The exceptions, explanations and incalculable time frame Fukuyama lays out to validate his theory ignore the reality of human motivational behavior as explained by Kahneman and Tversky in their 1981 essay "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice." Kahneman and Tversky provide evidence and data that prove we do not behave in ways that the majority of academics define as "rational" and, therefore, predictable. That lack of rational predictability is even truer in any political undertaking. To say that democracy may expire, perhaps for centuries, but will rise again and become the universal norm provides a reason to look elsewhere for useful exploration of humankind's future.

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