Meanwhile, by the late 1850s, many Americans were calling for the abolition of slavery. The rapidly industrializing North, where slavery had been outlawed several decades before, favored national abolition. Southern states, on the other hand, believed that individual states had the right to decide whether or not slavery should be legal. In 1861, the Southern states, fearing domination by the North and the Republican President Nominee Abraham Lincoln , seceded from the Union and formed the breakaway Confederate States of America . These events sparked the American Civil War . To date, it is the bloodiest conflict on American soil, with over 200,000 killed in combat and a overall death toll exceeding 600,000. In 1865, Union forces prevailed, thereby cementing the federal government's authority over the states. The federal government then launched a complex process of rehabilitation and re-assimilation of the Confederacy, a period known as Reconstruction . Slavery was abolished by constitutional amendment, but the former slaves and their descendants were to remain an economic and social underclass, particularly in the South.
@Mark – if you are interested in assessing the reliability of symptom ratings, then you need ICCs for each item. If you are interested in assessing inter-rater reliability in general (. the reliability relevant to any future statistics computed using a “borderline score”), you’ll want to compute the scale means for each rater and compute ICC for those means. You should not take an average of ICCs, as that’s not an interpretable value – if you’re interested in the ICC of overall scales, that’s what you should compute the ICC on.